Flat bones are thin and composed f two nearly parallel plates of compact bone exposing a layer of spongy bone. Spony bones in the head are called diploe. They provide a lot of muscle attachment. Ex. cranial bones, sternum, ribs, scapulae.
|C.||hyaline cartilage model|
|D.||layer of spongy bone|
Intramembranous Ossification: Flatbones, facial bones, mandible, medial part of clavicle.
Exdochondrral: the rest of the bones in the body
In the skeletal system, spongy bone is located:
|Your Answer:||in lining the canaliculi of bones.|
|Correct Answer:||where stresses arrive from many directions.|
A long bone increases in length by means of:
|Your Answer:||growth and ossification at the epiphyseal cartilage.|
During intramembranous ossification, osteoblasts leave the area as bone is formed, leaving it exclusively as matrix.
Small bones found in tendons: sesamoid bones
|Your Answer:||lines the marrow cavity.|
|Correct Answer:||contains an inner osteogenic layer.|
Immovable fibrous joint that joins skull bones: suture
In a long bone, the epiphyseal plate functions to ensure that:
|Your Answer:||the bone can continue to increase in length.|
Nasal septum = Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone + Vomer
Osteopenia is a:
|Your Answer:||thickening of bone under the influence of unusual and heavy stresses.|
|Correct Answer:||result of insufficient weight-bearing exercise, too little Vitamin D, and not enough calcium.|
Membrane that covers cartilage: Perichondrium
Canal by which nerves and blood vessels penetrate into compact bone: Perforating canal.
Osteoporosis most severely reduces the ability of a bone to:
|Your Answer:||provide structural support for the body.|
Processes that form where ligaments or tendons attach to a bone include:
|Your Answer:||trochanters, tuberosities and tubercles.|
Mesenchyme-filled space where bone formation is not yet complete, especially between the cranial bones of an infant’s skull: fontanel
Depositon of mineral salts in a frameword formed by collagen fibers in which the tissue hardens: calcification.
A load that stresses a bone by pulling it in two different directions is __________.
The basic unit of structure in adult compact bone, consisting of a central (haversian) canal with its concentrically arranged lamellae, lacunae, osteocytes, and canaliculi. AKA Haversian system: Osteon
Small, hollow space, such as that found in bones in which the osteocytes lie: lacuna
Because they are strong and relatively inflexible, calcium phosphate crystals enable bone to withstand the stress of compression.
Ossification is the developmental process wherein mesenchyme or cartilage is replaced by bone.
Mucus-lined air cavity in a skull bone that communicates with the nasal cavity. Paranasal sinuses are located in the frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones: paranasal sinus
Bone tissue consisting of trabeculae; found inside short, flat, and irregular bones and in the epiphyses (ends) of long bones.
7 bones of the ankle: Tarsals.
In the correct order, what are the steps involved in repair of a fracture in a bone?
|Your Answer:||An internal callus forms; it is remodeled, and once this is complete, the outer surface of the bone is remodeled.|
|Correct Answer:||Blood forms a clot; a callus forms; its cartilage is replaced by new bone, and the old callus swelling is remodeled.|
Microscopic tube running hte length of the spinal cord. Runs longitudinally in the center of an osteon of mature compact bone, containing blood and lymphatic vessels and nervesL Central canal.
Membrane that lines the medullary (marrow) cavity of bones, consisting of osteogenic cells and scattered osteoclasts.
A suture is a very complex junction between two bones of the skull that maximizes the area of ligamentous connection between the bones.
Exaggeration of the thoracic curve of the vertebral column, resulting in a hunchback: kyphosis
A major difference between compact and spongy bone is that:
|Your Answer:||spongy bone lacks concentric lamellae.|
|Correct Answer:||spongy bone lacks osteons.|
Method of bone formation in which the bone is formed directly in messenchyme arranged sheet like layers that resemble membranes: Intramembranous ossification.
Stem cell derived from mesenchyme that has mitotic potential and the ability to differentiate into an osteoblast. Osteogenic cell.
8 bones of the wrist: Carpals.
Fused bones at the inferior end of the vertebral column: coccyx
Frontal plane = coronal plane
What are the four major sets of blood vessels in a typical bone?
|Your Answer:||Haversian artery, Volkmann’s artery and vein, and connecting capillaries|
|Correct Answer:||nutrient artery and vein, epiphyseal vessels, metaphyseal vessels, and periosteal vessels|
Slightly movable cartilaginous joint between the anterior surfaces of the hip bones. Pubic symphysis.
Joint in the skull between the parietal bones and the occipital bone, sometimes contains sutural bones: lambdoid suture.
Replacement of cartilage by bone. AKA intracartilaginous ossification: endochondral ossification
Small, irregularly shaped bones that sometimes form between bones of the skull are called ____________ bones.
7 bones of the ankle: tarsus
Exaggeration of the lumbar curve of the vertebral column. AKA hollow back: lordosis
Hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis of the long bone; site of lengthwise growth of long bones: epiphyseal plate
Space within the diaphysis of a bone that contains yellow bone marrow. AKA marrow cavity: Medullary cavity.
Growth due to surface deposition of material, as in the growth in diameter of cartilage and bone. AKA exogenous growth. Appositional growth.
8 bones of wrist: Carpals
A small channel or canal where they connect lacunae.
Which type of bone has an internal and external table of compact bone with a layer of spongy bone called the diploe in between?