Hybridation of Atomic Orbitals

ELECTRON DELOCALIZATION AND RESONANCE: http://www.utdallas.edu/~scortes/ochem/OChem1_Lecture/Class_Materials/06_electr_delocal_res.pdf

Delocalized Electrons: http://chemed.chem.wisc.edu/chempaths/GenChem-Textbook/Delocalized-Electrons-1042.html

Hybridization: http://www.organicchem.org/oc1web/lecture/HYBRIDIZATION.pdf

Hybridization of Carbon: http://pages.towson.edu/ladon/carbon.html

sp3 = 4 hybridized orbitals

sp2 = 3 hybridize orbitals + 1 unhybridized p orbital

sp = 2 hybridized orbitals + 2 unhybridized p orbitals

sp3: Carbon in Methane contains 4 valence electrons each shared with H atoms. So all the orbitals are mixed.

C2H4: 

sp2: Carbon contains 4 Valence Electons but it is only sharing 3 of them, so 1 p orbital is unmixed

C2H2: 

sp: Carbon has 4 valence electrons but shares only 2 of them, so 2 p orbitals are unmixed

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